Paper play is both creative and educational fun that children can't get enough of. In constructing easy to make shapes, children create a fascinating world, while developing dexterity and spatial imagination. In other words, the cut-outs presented within make Big Ideas for Little People the most engaging activity book you can introduce to your child. The animal and vehicle shapes found on these pages can be created by your child without any help from an adult...and no need for glue or scissors. The patterns, clear instructions and pre-made pop-out shapes make it easy for little hands to manipulate these fun shapes. The simple stories on each page are an added attraction and suggest how to make the paper models come alive! These three magnificent books are an occasion for children to create their own toys. With the first book, children will be encouraged to discover a farm: ripening fruit in the orchard, vegetables growing in the garden, mooing cows, bleating sheep, grunting pigs and cackling chickens. In second book, they will learn the secrets of wild animals through short descriptions placed amongst the illustrations. And finally, in the third book, motor vehicles and machines will be presented-cars, lorries, and heavy duty machines amongst others. Reading about farm animals, wild animals and vehicles will give parents a great opportunity to join children at play and spend some quality time with them.
This book addresses problems and challenges that face educational measurement at a time when multipurpose usage of observational data from educational assessments, tests and international surveys has become a growing global trend. While the construction of educational measures and use of educational data offer many opportunities, they also require awareness of the numerous threats to validity and methods of reducing such threats. Written by leading international scholars, the book demonstrates the complexity of educational measurement by addressing three broad and interrelated topics. The first part discusses cognitive abilities, including studies on fluid intelligence, its improvement and its links to aptitude tests for admission to higher education. The second part focuses on the effects of school and teacher-related factors on school outcomes at individual and group levels, and uses international studies to analyze causes. The third part presents analytical techniques and measurement methods to improve reliability, for example factor analysis using Bayesian estimators, bi-factor analysis, model misfit and solutions, and discusses balance issues in reporting test results.
The book provides examples of state-of-the-art analytical techniques for pursuing fundamental research problems, and the latest advances in measurement methods, with a focus on validity improvement. Eminent researchers discuss and provide insights into questions such as: Is it possible to train individuals to think at a higher level than normal for their age? What determines prospective preschool teachers' skill to perceive mathematics-related preschool situations? Can international indicator design and instruments be improved to use trends and national context variables more efficiently? Can indicator data at national, school and class levels be compared easier? Are value-added measures of teacher effectiveness valid when it comes to hiring and promoting teachers? Is money better spent on teacher training than on smaller class-size? How do theory and empirical statistical data intertwine in building structures of understanding?
This book is inspired by the career and personal influence of the Swedish scholar Professor Jan-Eric Gustafsson, renowned for his research on individual differences, especially the structure of cognitive abilities, and on the effects of education on knowledge and skills.
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